Saturday, August 25, 2012


To Snap or Pronate, Which is Best?

There are two theories on how to hit a serve.  There are people who believe that “Snapping” the wrist is the best way and others who believe that “Pronating” is the best method of serving. The difference between the two options is difficult to detect visually.

When you Snap the wrist to execute the serve the racquet-head tends to finish with the tip leading and the right and left edges going through contact almost symmetrically.

When you Pronate to hit the serve the left edge (in the case of a right-hander) tends to lead the racquet through the ball.

For me, both styles do the same thing when executed correctly. Both Snapping and Pronating, when done correctly, promote a wrist that dominates the arm during the serve. Whenever the arm dominates the wrist during the serve the result will be a serve lacking feel for your target and reduced racquet-head speed.

A dominant wrist that Snaps or Pronates will give the serve the timing, accuracy and “pop” all players seek. Here are some ideas to help the wrist dominate the arm.

1.  Sitting on the Chair Drill
Sit in a chair facing the court and throw from the sitting position. In order to mimic the exact chain reaction used when serving, align your arm with your chest and make sure your under-arm is parallel with the ground.

Try to throw the ball as far as you can without a follow-through.  Throw only from the wrist.  Soon, the chain reaction from your forearm, through the wrist and into the hand will improve and this will translate into a more intelligent wrist when serving.

2.  Baseline/ Net Band/ Service box Drill

Stand in the centre of the baseline and try to hit the baseline by using a “late” wrist. A late wrist will create an open racquet-face on contact with the ball, sending it long. 

Hit another ball into the service-box on your side of the net. Again, do this by timing the wrist, this time the wrist will need to be “early” on contact with the ball.

The last target is the white net-band.  By gaining experience of a late and early wrist you should now be able to time the contact correctly to hit the white net-band.

Be sure to make changes of depth through the wrist only.  By isolating the wrist to perform this drill you are educating the wrist to not only be more accurate but also dominate the arm during the motion.

3.  Sideline/ Centre Line/ Sideline Drill

Stand in the centre of the baseline and try to hit the singles sideline on the left side, the centre service-line and lastly the singles service-line on the right side.

As you do this exercise don’t make changes with your body position, but simply change the wrist direction.  By isolating the wrist to perform this drill you are again educating the wrist to not only be more accurate but also dominate the arm during the motion.

Thursday, August 9, 2012


I recently worked with a group of strong ITF level juniors. Each player had a solid game and the task for me was to take these accomplished juniors to the next level.

Because ground-strokes are such an important part of a player’s competitive success, I focused on adding to their existing ground-stroke games.  Many players at this level have very good ground-strokes but lack that X-factor separating good juniors from juniors that transition successfully into the professional ranks.

During the week of training I brought 3 different theories together and tried to create a much stronger, more effective game which would also continue to develop far into the future.

The 3 Theories I worked on were:

1.  The 7 Target Zones: ADDING ACCURACY

There are 7 target zones on the court. They are…

(1)                Deep Baseline Corner (right side)
(2)                Deep Baseline Corner (left side)
(3)                Side “T” (right side)
(4)                Side “T” (left side)
(5)                Drop Shot Corner (right side)
(6)                Drop Shot Corner (left side)
(7)                Centre Baseline (middle rectangular area)

The best players don’t just hit the ball to “get it in”.  Accomplished player’s use targets to assist in attacking and defending the point.  At tournament level, playing with a “one shot” mindset will not work against an experienced opponent.

Tennis is a form of chess, the 7 target zones on the court taking the place of the squares on the chessboard and the ball replacing the chess pieces.  Like chess, you must coordinate a series on-court target zones to out maneuver your opponent and gain an advantage.  

Drills to establish a “7 Target Zone” mindset:

Throwing Drill:
To create a “target zone” mindset I first show players  the 7 zones on a court and then have them rally together by hand, throwing the ball to the 7 target areas (1,2,3,4,5,6 or 7) instead of using their racquets.

Hitting Slow
I then repeat the same drill but this time have the players use their racquets to find the 7 target zones.  This step should be done slowly, with the emphasis on accuracy, not speed and finishing the point

“No Winner” Game
The no winner game is played with the goal of working the “opponent” around the court by use of the 7 target zones.  Don’t try to finish the rally but to instead concentrate on applying pressure on your opponents court coverage and your response to pressure from your opponent.


“The Directionals” were developed by Paul Wardlaw and involve high percentage shot selection. There are 3 types of ball to consider:
§  Outside Ball
This is a crosscourt ball which comes from one side of the body (ie: the left side), and travels through to the outer side (right side).

We refer to the line of the shoulders, if a ball traveling crosscourt passes one shoulder and makes its way past the outside shoulder its an “Outside Ball”. An Outside Ball is considered the best way to create offense and the best way to defend when under pressure at the baseline.

§  Inside Ball
If the ball doesn’t make it all the way to the outer shoulder it’s an “Inside Ball”.  Inside Balls are considered the best balls to change direction on and to create the most effective offense.

§  90 Degree Ball
This is the ball hit down the line.  The rule when hitting down the line is that the ball must cross the far baseline at 90 degrees. Therefore the down the line ball is used mostly as a means to out maneuver the opponent

When you are playing at the baseline the high percentage option is to dominate the crosscourt exchanges.  When at net the high percentage option is to volley mostly down the line.

We worked on the correct options throughout the week and tried to eliminate low percentage options from their games.

Drills to develop “Directionals”:

Cross-court and Change
Two players start a crosscourt rally and try to dominate the exchange by hitting heavier or deeper.  If one of the players has an opportunity on a short ball they can change down the line at 90 degrees and finish the “point”.

This drills helps the player to recognize the correct type of ball to change down the line and also confidence in creating inside balls.

No Winner Game
I have described the No Winner game already. When used to develop the Directionals the player will have lots of opportunities to develop a strong outside ball, become mentally stronger in long rallies and learn to respond correctly under a variety of situations.

Basket Feed & “Outside” targets
Place two cone targets on the court, each target representing the outside shoulder.  Feed 6 balls side to side (FH & BH) and have the player practice hitting a crosscourt outside ball beyond the “cone shoulder”.


Drills to develop the DNO Theory:

Cross-court & change DTL
Similar to the previous drill, both players start by hitting crosscourt. On the correct ball one of the players can change the direction down the line and the two players play the point out until the point has been won.

By combining these three theories all the players received training on targeting, playing the percentages and correct shot selection.